Advancements in Insulin Therapy: Current Status and Future Directions


Insulin therapy has revolutionized the treatment of diabetes, a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by impaired insulin production or utilization. This therapeutic approach aims to restore and maintain optimal blood glucose levels by supplementing or replacing the body’s deficient insulin supply. Over the years, insulin therapy has evolved from crude animal-derived preparations to highly purified human insulin and more recently to analog insulins with improved pharmacokinetic profiles. This abstract provides an overview of the principles and advancements in insulin therapy, including different insulin formulations, routes of administration, and delivery systems. The various insulin regimens, such as basal-bolus, multiple daily injections, and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, are discussed, along with their advantages and limitations. Additionally, factors influencing insulin requirements, such as individualized dosing, meal planning, physical activity, and coexisting medical conditions, are explored. Furthermore, the challenges associated with insulin therapy, such as hypoglycemia, weight gain, injection-related issues, and the psychological impact on individuals with diabetes, are addressed. Finally, emerging trends in insulin therapy, such as the development of closed-loop systems and the potential role of adjunctive therapies, are highlighted. Overall, insulin therapy remains a cornerstone in the management of diabetes, and continued research and technological advancements are essential to improve outcomes and enhance the quality of life for individuals living with this chronic condition.