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Neonatal Oncology: Understanding and Treating Cancer in the Tiniest Patients

Arunodaya Bisht

Neonatal oncology is a specialized field of pediatric oncology that focuses on the diagnosis, treatment, and management of cancer in infants and neonates, typically within the first 28 days of life. Although rare, neonatal malignancies present unique challenges due to the complexities of diagnosing cancer in this vulnerable population and tailoring appropriate therapies that account for their physiological immaturity. This review provides an overview of neonatal oncology, highlighting the epidemiology, diagnostic approaches, treatment modalities, and advancements in research that have improved outcomes for these young patients. Understanding the distinct characteristics and therapeutic considerations in neonatal oncology is crucial for healthcare providers to optimize care and enhance the chances of successful outcomes for this delicate patient group. Neonatal oncology is a specialized field of pediatric oncology that focuses on the diagnosis, treatment, and management of cancer in infants and neonates, typically within the first 28 days of life. Although rare, neonatal malignancies present unique challenges due to the complexities of diagnosing cancer in this vulnerable population and tailoring appropriate therapies that account for their physiological immaturity. This review provides an overview of neonatal oncology, highlighting the epidemiology, diagnostic approaches, treatment modalities, and advancements in research that have improved outcomes for these young patients. Understanding the distinct characteristics and therapeutic considerations in neonatal oncology is crucial for healthcare providers to optimize care and enhance the chances of successful outcomes for this delicate patient group.